Some tips about PAST PERFECT and exercises



Before I went to Tierra del Fuego, I'd travelled all over the world and I'd seen all kinds of incredible sights. But this was definitely more impressive than anything else I'd ever seen. I'd never been so lost to an iceberg before. I took this photo just as it started to turn. I hadn't realized how big it was until then. The side that had previously been underwater came to the top. It was a beautiful deep blue.

Roberto F. (Buenos Aires)

Use the past perfect to talk about an action that happened before a certain time in the past: Before I went to Tierra del Fuego, I'd  travelled all around the world. I'd been to Japan, Mexico and Kenya.

You can also use the past perfect to talk about an action that did not happen before the given time in the past: I'd never been so close to an iceberg before.

TIP 
Don't confuse the contracted forms of had ('d) and would ('d):
I'd seen an iceberg. (I had seen an iceberg.)
I'd like to see an iceberg. (I would like to see an iceberg.)

Past perfect and past simple
You often use the past perfect and the past simple together. Use the past simple to talk about the most recent past action. Use the past perfect to talk about actions and situations that happened before a certain time in the past:
I hadn't realized how big it was until it turned over.
The side that had previously been underwater came to the top.

Time expressions
The past perfect is often used with the following adverbs to emphasize the fact that the action happened earlier: already, just, recently, before, previously, earlier.

** Already, just and recently come between had and the past participle.
He had just come back from Laos. I had recently sold my car.

** Before comes at the end of the sentence.
In negative sentences it is often used with never.
I'd been to Argentina many times before. I had never seen anything like it before.

EXERCISES

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